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Types of disasters
The following types of disasters are distinguished:
• Ecological catastrophe - a natural disaster, a major industrial or transport accident (catastrophe), which led to extremely adverse changes in the habitat and, as a rule, to massive damage to the flora, fauna, soil, air environment and nature as a whole. The consequence of an environmental disaster, as a rule, is significant economic damage.
• Industrial or transport accident - a major accident, resulting in loss of life and significant material damage.
• Man-made disaster - a sudden, unintended release of mechanical, chemical, thermal, radiation and other energy.
Disaster relief refers to measures that can limit or change the consequences of a disaster.
The classification of anthropogenic emergencies is shown in Fig. 1.4.
Fig. 1.4. Classification of anthropogenic emergencies
Transport accidents (catastrophes ) occur during the movement of vehicles.
Fires and explosions occur at fire hazardous and explosive facilities, on railway and pipeline transport, which carry out the movement of fire hazardous and explosive cargo.
Accidents involving the release of hazardous chemicals (AHOV) are incidents involving the leakage of harmful chemical products during their production, storage, processing and transportation.
Accidents with the release of radioactive substances occur at radiation hazardous facilities: nuclear plants, enterprises for the manufacture and processing of nuclear fuel, the disposal of radioactive waste, etc.
Accidents with the release of biologically hazardous substances (BWS) are the most dangerous accidents for the population, since the severity of the consequences in the event of the release of biologically hazardous substances into the environment is very high.
Sudden collapse of buildings, structures are most often caused by side factors: a large crowd of people in a limited area; strong vibration caused by passing trains or heavy vehicles; excessive load on the upper floors of buildings, etc.
Accidents at electric power systems and communal life support systems significantly complicate the life of the population, especially in the cold season.
Accidents at industrial wastewater treatment plants result in the release of poisonous, toxic and harmful substances into the environment.
Hydrodynamic accidents occur during the destruction of hydraulic structures, most often dams. Their consequences are the flooding of vast territories.
With the further development of the technological progress of society, new emergencies will appear, therefore, knowledge, skills, and experience of people in their prevention, actions aimed at maintaining health and life in the event of an emergencies of an technogenic nature become important.
7. Classification of social emergencies, their characteristics.
An important place in the life of modern society is occupied by emergencies of a social nature: wars, terrorist acts, hostage-taking, theft, fraud, gambling, rape, harmful and dangerous habits, mass crowds, informal associations. A specific feature of social emergencies is that they all arise in the sphere of relationships between people and depend on the person. Emergencies of a social nature are deliberately planned, prepared, conducted by people. These people are trying with the help of an emergency of a social nature to solve their political, national, religious, criminal, financial, personal tasks. For these purposes, various cruel methods are used: threats, blackmail, violence, deceit, hostage-taking, theft, murder. Organizers, customers, performers are not stopped by the fact that civilians most often become victims of social emergencies.
Fig. 1.5. Classification of social emergencies
The activity of the world community, states, governments, special services is aimed at combating emergency situations of a social nature. An important place in the overall system of combating social emergencies belongs to the population, to each of us. By their skills, knowledge, correct and timely actions, many social emergencies can be prevented, and the severity of their consequences can be mitigated.
8. Classification of environmental emergencies.
For a comfortable living on Earth, humanity needs to pay great attention to environmental emergencies, these include: extinction of plants and animals, pollution, salinization, waterlogging and soil erosion, air pollution, pollution of the oceans, pollution of the environment, depletion of water resources, etc. . (Fig. 1.6.).
Fig. 1.6. Classification of environmental emergencies
Environmental pollution, a decrease in the thickness of the ozone layer suppresses the immune system of living organisms, including humans.
This is the result of a sharp deterioration of the environmental situation, the destruction of previously existing systems of general disease prevention in the country and neglect of the rules and standards of life safety.
One of the main factors that led to environmental degradation in the Republic of Kazakhstan was the unreasonable development of extractive industries.
RK mainly produces mining products, most of this raw material is exported.
In this regard, the Republic of Kazakhstan differs little from the countries of the Third World, which are the raw materials appendages of industrialized countries.
In the export structure of Kazakhstan, in addition to crude oil, gas, there is metal and mineral fertilizers. In the world market, Kazakhstan purchases both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. However, metallurgy is one of the most environmentally dirty industries. Therefore, buyers of our metallurgical products prefer to have dirty production in Kazakhstan, rather than at home. The same applies to the mineral fertilizer industry.
World experience shows that to stabilize the environmental situation in the country, it is necessary to spend at least 3% of the gross national product, and to improve the environmental situation, it is necessary 5%. Such costs are borne by Germany, England and Sweden. The largest environmental spending in the United States is 7%.
In the Republic of Kazakhstan, less than 1% is allocated for these purposes.
The questions are:
1. What is called an emergency?
2. What is understood by the source of the emergency?
3. How are emergencies classified by source?
4. How are emergencies classified by scale?
5. What emergency is local?
6. What emergency is local?
7. What is a territorial emergency?
8. What is a regional emergency?
9. What emergency is cross-border?
10. Give a definition of natural disaster.
11. What are the statistics of natural disasters?
12. What emergency is called natural?
13. How are natural emergencies classified?
14. What natural disasters relate to geological natural emergency?
15. What natural disasters relate to meteorological natural emergencies?
16. What natural disasters relate to hydrological natural emergencies?
17. What emergency is called technogenic?
18. How are technological emergencies classified?
19. Give a definition of the accident.
20. Give a definition of disaster.
21. What types and characteristics of disasters do you know?
22. What emergency is called social?
23. How are social emergencies classified?
24. What emergency is called environmental?
25. How are environmental emergencies classified?
1 . Depending on the source, emergency situations are divided into:
1. natural, man-made, criminal, environmental;
2. natural, man-made, social, industrial;
3. natural, man-made, social, environmental;
4. man-made, social, environmental, natural fires;
5.natural, meteorological, social, environmental.
2 . According to the classification, an earthquake is an emergency:
3. According to the classification, a traffic accident is an emergency:
4. According to the classification, war is an emergency:
5 . According to the classification, extinction of plants is an emergency:
6. According to the classification, a volcanic eruption is an emergency:
7. According to the classification, fires and explosions are emergency situations:
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