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General characteristics of Russian literature of the XIX century
The 19th century is called the "Golden Age" of Russian poetry and the century of Russian literature on a global scale. Do not forget that the literary leap that took place in the 19th century was prepared by the whole course of the literary process of the 17-18 centuries. The 19th century is the time of the formation of the Russian literary >A.S. Pushkin .
But the 19th century began with the heyday of sentimentalism and the emergence of romanticism. The indicated literary trends found expression, first of all, in poetry. The poetic works of poets E.A. come to the fore. Baratynsky, K.N. Batyushkova, V.A. Zhukovsky, A.A. Feta, D.V. Davydova, N.M. Yazykov. Creativity F.I. Tyutchev's "Golden Age" of Russian poetry was completed. However, the central figure of this time was Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin.
A.S. Pushkin began his ascent to the literary Olympus with the poem Ruslan and Lyudmila in 1920. And his novel in verses “Eugene Onegin” was called the encyclopedia of Russian life. Romantic poems by A.S. Pushkin's The Bronze Horseman (1833), The Bakhchisarai Fountain, and Gypsies ushered in the era of Russian romanticism. Many poets and writers considered A.S. Pushkin to be their teacher and continued their traditions of creating literary works. One of these poets was M.Yu. Lermontov . His romantic poem “Mtsyri”, the poem “Demon”, and many romantic poems are known.
Interestingly , Russian poetry of the 19th century was closely connected with the social and political life of the country. Poets tried to comprehend the idea of their special destiny. A poet in Russia was considered a vehicle of divine truth, a prophet. Poets called on the authorities to heed their words. Vivid examples of understanding the role of the poet and the impact on the political life of the country are poems by A.S. Pushkin's “Prophet”, ode to “Liberty”, “Poet and crowd”, poem by M.Yu. Lermontov's "The Death of the Poet" and many others.
Along with poetry, prose began to develop. The prose writers of the beginning of the century were influenced by W. Scott's English historical novels, the translations of which were very popular. The development of Russian prose of the 19th century began with the prose works of A.S. Pushkin and N.V. Gogol . Pushkin, under the influence of English historical novels, creates the story “The Captain's Daughter”, where the action takes place against the backdrop of grandiose historical events: during the Pugachev riot. A.S. Pushkin did a tremendous job exploring this historical period. This work was largely political in nature and was directed to those in power.
A.S. Pushkin and N.V. Gogol identified the main types of art that will be developed by writers throughout the 19th century. This is an artistic type of "extra person", a model of which is Eugene Onegin in the novel by A.S. Pushkin, and the so-called type of "little man", which is shown N.V. Gogol in his novel "The Overcoat", as well as A.S. Pushkin in the novel "Station Warden".
In the same plan, the comedy "The Inspector General" is sustained. Full of satirical images and works of A. S. Pushkin. Literature continues to satirically depict Russian reality. The tendency to portray the vices and shortcomings of Russian society is a characteristic feature of all of Russian classical literature. It can be traced in the works of almost all writers of the 19th century. At the same time, many writers realize a satirical tendency in a grotesque form. Examples of grotesque satire are the works of N. V. Gogol "The Nose", M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, "Lord Golovlev", "History of a city."
Since the mid-19th century, the formation of Russian realistic literature has been taking place, which is created against the background of the tense socio-political situation that developed in Russia during the reign of Nicholas I. A crisis of the feudal system is brewing, strong contradictions between the government and the common people. The need has arisen for the creation of realistic literature that is sharply responsive to the socio-political situation in the country. Literary critic V.G. Belinsky denotes a new realistic trend in literature. His position is developed by N.A. Dobrolyubov, N.G. Chernyshevsky. There is a dispute between Westerners and Slavophiles about the ways of historical development of Russia.
Writers address the socio-political problems of Russian reality. The genre of a realistic novel is developing. I.S. Turgenev, F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, I.A. Goncharov. Socio-political, philosophical issues prevail. Literature is distinguished by a special psychologism.
The development of poetry is somewhat silent. It is worth noting the poetic works of Nekrasov, who was the first to introduce social issues into poetry. His poem “Who needs to live well in Russia?” Is well known, as well as many poems, where the difficult and hopeless life of the people is conceptualized.
The literary process of the late 19th century revealed the names of N. S. Leskov, A. N. Ostrovsky A.P. Chekhov. The latter proved himself to be a master of a small literary genre - a story, as well as an excellent playwright. Competitor A.P. Chekhov was Maxim Gorky .
The end of the 19th century was marked by the formation of pre-revolutionary sentiments. Realistic tradition was beginning to fade. It was replaced by the so-called decadent literature, the hallmarks of which were mysticism, religiosity, as well as a premonition of changes in the socio-political life of the country. Subsequently, decadence grew into symbolism. This opens a new page in the history of Russian literature.
Russian literature of the XX century: general description
Description of the literary process of the 20th century, presentation of the main literary movements and trends. Realism. Modernism (symbolism, acmeism, futurism). Literary avant-garde.
Late 19th - early 20th centuries became the time of the bright flourishing of Russian culture, its “silver age” (Pushkin’s time was called the “golden age”). One after another, new talents appeared in science, literature, and art, bold innovations were born, different directions, groups, and styles competed. At the same time, the culture of the “Silver Age” was inherent in the deep contradictions that were characteristic of all Russian life of that time.
Russia's rapid breakthrough in development, the clash of different ways and cultures changed the self-awareness of the creative intelligentsia. Many were no longer satisfied with the description and study of visible reality, the analysis of social problems. Drawn deep, eternal questions - about the essence of life and death, good and evil, human nature. Revived interest in religion; the religious theme had a strong influence on the development of Russian culture at the beginning of the 20th century.
However, the turning point not only enriched literature and art: it constantly reminded writers, artists and poets of impending social explosions, that the whole familiar way of life, the whole old culture, could die. Some were waiting for these changes with joy, others - with longing and horror, which introduced pessimism and anguish into their work.
At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. literature developed under different historical conditions than before. If you look for a word that characterizes the most important features of the period under consideration, then it will be the word "crisis". Great scientific discoveries shook the classical ideas about the structure of the world, led to the paradoxical conclusion: "matter has disappeared." Thus, a new vision of the world will also determine the new face of 20th-century realism, which will differ significantly from the classical realism of its predecessors. The crisis of faith also had devastating consequences for the human spirit (" God is dead!" Exclaimed Nietzsche ). This led to the fact that people of the XX century began to increasingly experience the influence of irreligious ideas. The cult of sensual pleasures, the apology of evil and death, the glorification of self-will of a person, the recognition of the right to violence, which turned into terror - all these features testify to the deepest crisis of consciousness.
In Russian literature at the beginning of the 20th century, a crisis of old ideas about art and a feeling of exhaustion of past development will be felt, a reassessment of values will be formed.
Updating literature , its modernization will cause the emergence of new trends and schools. Rethinking the old means of expression and the revival of poetry will mark the onset of the “silver age” of Russian literature. This term is associated with the name of N. Berdyaev , who used it in one of his speeches in the salon of D. Merezhkovsky. Later, the art critic and editor of Apollo S. Makovsky consolidated this phrase by naming his book on Russian culture of the turn of the century “On Parnassus of the Silver Age”. Several decades will pass and A. Akhmatova will write "... the silver month is bright / It has cooled over the silver age."
The chronological framework of the period defined by this metaphor can be described as follows: 1892 - exit from the era of timelessness, the beginning of a social upsurge in the country, the manifesto and collection of Symbols by D. Merezhkovsky, the first stories of M. Gorky, etc.) - 1917. According to another point of view, the chronological end of this period can be considered the years 1921-1922 (the collapse of past illusions that began after the death of A. Blok and N. Gumilyov, the mass emigration of figures of Russian culture from Russia, the expulsion of a group of writers, philosopher and historians from the country).
Russian literature of the 20th century was represented by three main literary trends: realism, modernism, and the literary avant-garde. Schematically, the development of literary trends at the beginning of the century can be shown as follows:
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