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Auxiliary historical disciplines
Auxiliary historical disciplines are subjects that study certain types or individual forms and contents of historical sources.
We can attribute the following sciences to auxiliary historical disciplines:
историю письма, закономерности развития его графических форм, а также памятники древней письменности в целях их прочтения, определения автора, времени и места создания. Paleography is an auxiliary historical discipline (a special historical and philological discipline) that studies the history of writing, the patterns of development of its graphic forms, as well as monuments of ancient writing in order to read them, determine the author, time and place of creation. Paleography explores the evolution of the graphic forms of letters, written characters, the proportions of their constituent elements, types and evolution of fonts, the abbreviation system and their graphic designation, material and writing tools. A special branch of paleography is studying the graphics of cryptography systems (cryptography).
исторические акты (юридические документы). Diplomacy is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies historical acts (legal documents).
древние документы дипломатического и юридического характера: грамоты, акты и тому подобные тексты и их оригиналы. She explores ancient documents of a diplomatic and legal nature: letters, acts, and the like texts and their originals. — отличать подложные акты от настоящих. One of its tasks is to distinguish fake acts from real ones.
родственных взаимосвязей людей, историей родов, происхождением отдельных лиц, установлением родственных связей, составлением поколенных росписей и генеалогических древ. Genealogy is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies the family relationships of people, the history of childbirth, the origin of individuals, the establishment of family ties, the compilation of generational paintings and genealogical trees. Genealogy is associated with heraldry, diplomacy and many other historical disciplines. Since the beginning of the 21st century, in connection with scientific progress, genetic genealogy using human DNA analysis is gaining popularity .
гербов, а также традиция и практика их использования. Heraldry is a special historical discipline engaged in the study of emblems, as well as the tradition and practice of their use. It is part of the emblem - a group of interconnected disciplines that study emblems. The difference between emblems and other emblems lies in the fact that their structure, use and legal status correspond to special, historically established rules. Heraldry precisely determines what and how it can be applied to the state emblem, family coat of arms and so on, explains the significance of certain figures.
печати (матрицы) и их оттиски на различных материалах. Sphragistics is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies prints (matrices) and their prints on various materials.
Originally developed as part of the diplomacy involved in determining the authenticity of documents.
употреблявшиеся в прошлом меры — длины, площади, объёма, веса — в их историческом развитии. Historical metrology is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies measures used in the past - length, area, volume, weight - in their historical development. Often, the units of measurement did not form a metric system, they are referred to traditional measurement systems. Historical metrology studies the history of the genesis and development of various measurement systems, the names of individual measures, their quantitative relationships, establishes their real values, that is, compliance with modern metric systems. Metrology is closely related to numismatics, as in many peoples in the past weight measures coincided with monetary units and had the same name.
историю монетной чеканки и денежного обращения. Numismatics is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies the history of coinage and monetary circulation.
нумизматических памятников культуры; Social functions of numismatics : identification of numismatic cultural monuments; the study of characteristic facts, relationships, and processes that contribute to a more in-depth understanding of history and fill gaps in historical science.
даты исторических событий и документов; Chronology - an auxiliary historical discipline that sets the dates of historical events and documents; sequence of historical events in time; a list of any events in their time sequence.
историю через «призму» географии; Historical geography is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies history through the “prism” of geography; also it is the geography of any territory at a certain historical stage of its development. Currently, 8 sectors of historical geography are distinguished:
- historical physical geography (historical geography) - the most conservative industry, studying changes in the landscape;
- historical political geography - studies the changes in the political map, state system, routes of aggressive campaigns;
- historical geography of the population - studies the ethnographic and geographical features of the distribution of the population in the territories;
- historical social geography - studies the relationship of society, the change of social layers;
- historical cultural geography - studies the spiritual and material culture;
- The historical geography of the interaction of society and nature - the direct (the influence of man on nature) and the opposite (nature on man);
historical economic geography - studies the development of production, industrial revolutions;
- historical and geographical area studies.
и разрабатывающая теоретические, методические и организационные вопросы архивного дела и его историю. Archival studies - a scientific discipline that studies and develops theoretical, methodological and organizational issues of archiving and its history.
по вещественным источникам историческое прошлое человечества. Archeology is a historical discipline that studies the historical past of mankind from material sources.
народы-этносы и другие этнические образования, их происхождение (этногенез), состав, расселение, культурно-бытовые особенности, а также их материальную и духовную культуру. Ethnography is a part of historical science that studies ethnic peoples and other ethnic formations, their origin (ethnogenesis), composition, resettlement, cultural and everyday features, as well as their material and spiritual culture.
историю исторической науки. Historiography is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies the history of historical science. , насколько верно применяется научный метод при написании исторической работы, акцентируя внимание на авторе, его источниках, отделении фактов от интерпретации, а также на стилистике, авторских пристрастиях и на том, для какой аудитории написана им данная работа в области истории. Historiography checks how correctly the scientific method is applied in writing historical work, focusing on the author, his sources, separation of facts from interpretation, as well as on style, author's biases and for what audience the work in the field of history is written by him.
методику использования информационных технологий в изучении исторического процесса, публикации исторических исследований и преподавании исторических дисциплин, а также в архивном и музейном деле. Historical informatics is an auxiliary historical discipline that studies the methodology of using information technology in the study of the historical process, the publication of historical research and the teaching of historical disciplines, as well as in archival and museum affairs.
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