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Stages of the Time of Troubles
The Time of Troubles in Russia. Reasons, essence, stages, results.
1 ) The establishment of a 5-year period for the search and return of fugitive peasants is another step on the road to serfdom.
2 ) Three lean years in a row (1601-1603), which led to hunger, which exacerbated the internal situation in the country.
3 ) The discontent of everyone - from peasants to boyars and nobles - to the reign of Boris Godunov .
4 ) The mass of peasants and townspeople in the central and northwestern regions ravaged by war, an epidemic of plague and oprichnina.
5 ) The departure of peasants from villages and cities; the decline of the economy.
6 ) The aggravation of the class struggle.
7 ) The development of contradictions within the ruling class.
8 ) The deterioration of the international position of the state.
9 ) The crisis situation in the economic and political life of the country.
The first stage (1598-1605 gg.)
At this stage, the first signs of system destabilization appeared , but controllability remained. This situation created the conditions for a controlled process of change through reform. The absence of a pretender with firm rights to the throne after the death of Fyodor Ioannovich was extremely dangerous under autocratic, unlimited power. It was important to ensure the continuity of power. In 1598 The Zemsky Sobor was held , its composition was wide: boyars, nobles, clerks, guests (merchants) and representatives of all “peasants”.
The cathedral spoke out for a wedding to the kingdom of Boris Godunov , who actually ruled the country. The Boyar Duma gathered separately from the Zemsky Sobor and called for an oath to the Duma as the highest authority. Thus, an alternative arose: either to elect a king and continue to live, or to swear allegiance to the Duma, which meant the possibility of changes in public life. The outcome of the struggle was decided by the street, speaking for Boris Godunov, who agreed to the kingdom.
The situation of the majority of the people was disastrous . At the beginning of the XVII century, agriculture fell into decay, natural disasters added to this. In 1601 a terrible famine broke out, which lasted three years ( more than 120 thousand people were buried in mass graves in Moscow alone). In difficult conditions, the government went to some concessions: Yuryev’s day was restored, the distribution of bread to the starving was organized. But these measures did not alleviate the tension. In 1603, the uprisings became widespread.
The second stage (1605-1610 gg.)
At this stage, the country plunged into the abyss of civil war, the state collapsed. Moscow has lost the importance of a political center. In addition to the old capital, new “thieves” appeared: Putivl, Starodub, Tushino. The intervention of Western countries, attracted by the weakness of the Russian state, began. Sweden and Poland were rapidly advancing inland. State power was paralyzed. In Moscow, False Dmitry I , Vasily Shuisky , and the Boyar Duma were replaced, whose reign went down in history under the name of “seven-boyars”. However, their power was ephemeral. False Dmitry II, who was in Tushino, controlled almost half the country.
At this stage, the possibility of Europeanization of Russia is associated with the name of False Dmitry I. In 1603, a man appeared within the Rzeczpospolita, who called himself the name of the son of Ivan IV Dmitry , who had been considered dead for twelve years. In Russia, it was announced that under this name a fugitive monk of the Chudov Monastery Grigory Otrepiev was hiding.
In 1604, False Dmitry I with a small hired army, numbering only 2 thousand people. and scattered at the first military failure, invaded the borders of Russia. и обещал польскому королю и некоторым польским магнатам значительные территории России за военную поддержку. Before that, he secretly converted to Catholicism and promised the Polish king and some Polish magnates significant Russian territories for military support. The situation in the country contributed to the success of his campaign. The uprisings shocked Russia and often the Cossacks and townspeople surrendered the city to the impostor without a fight, joining its armed forces. The feuds in the upper strata of society after the death of Godunov facilitated the advance of False Dmitry I to Moscow.
In Moscow, False Dmitry I was recognized as the son of Ivan IV and was crowned in the summer of 1605. Together with him, the Polish aristocrat Marina Mnishek was crowned, who agreed to become his wife in order to gain the royal crown.
False Dmitry I faced the problem of organizing the administration of the country, stopping the collapse. He considered paramount the establishment of order and justice in the country, the fight against bureaucracy and corruption of officials. Having banned bribes in orders, he said that he would personally receive complaints from the population twice a week in the Kremlin. Opinions are expressed that False Dmitry I intended to free the peasants from serfdom. He considered projects for the establishment of an Academy and schools in Russia, and preached freedom of conscience. Freedom of trade, unprecedented in the Moscow state, was introduced, bans on the game of chess, cards, dances and songs were lifted. Attempts were made to rock dogmatic Russian Orthodoxy.
Vasily Shuisky , who belonged to the Rurikovich family, was on the throne in 1606-1610, although his power was fragile and did not extend beyond Moscow. He is famous for the fact that for the first time in Russia he swore allegiance to the people by signing a crucifix letter upon accession to the throne. He was afraid of everything new, his flexibility of mind was not different.
In 1610, Vasily Shuisky, voluntarily leaving the throne at the request of the people, was tonsured a monk , and then ended up in Polish captivity. Power passed to the Boyar Duma. In the same year, False Dmitry II was killed by his guards in Kaluga. At the second stage, the civil war took on a large-scale character, captured all sectors of society. There was virtually no serious force capable of stabilizing the situation.
The third stage (1610-1613 gg.)
This is the time to choose development paths . In these years, active attempts were made to revive the European system in Russian lands. They came from Western countries, primarily from Poland.
In 1612 Moscow was liberated from Polish troops, the militia fulfilled its role against foreign intervention and was disbanded, it could no longer influence political decision-making. On February 7, 1613, the Zemsky Cathedral was held. It was decided that the king should be a man from Russian lands. Zemsky Cathedral stopped on the candidacy of Mikhail Romanov .
The election of Mikhail Romanov as the tsar testified to the fact that the majority in society spoke out for the restoration of the Moscow kingdom with all its features. The Time of Troubles brought an important lesson: the majority was committed to the traditions of community, collectivism, strong centralized power and did not want to abandon them. Russia began to slowly emerge from the social catastrophe, restoring the social system that was destroyed during the Time of Troubles.
The consequences of the Troubles:
1 ) Temporary strengthening of the influence of the Boyar Duma and the Zemsky Sobor.
2 ) The positions of the nobility were strengthened
3 ) Lost the coast of the Baltic Sea and the land of Smolensk.
4 ) Economic devastation, poverty of the people.
5 ) The independence of Russia is maintained
6 ) The Romanov dynasty began to rule.
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