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Collective and personal protective equipment
Collective protective equipment - means of protection structurally and functionally associated with the production process, production equipment, premises, building, construction, production site.
Depending on the destination, there are:
- means of normalizing the air environment of industrial premises and workplaces, localization of harmful factors, heating, ventilation;
- means of normalizing the lighting of rooms and workplaces (light sources, lighting devices, etc.);
- means of protection against ionizing radiation (protective, sealing devices, safety signs, etc.);
- means of protection against infrared radiation (protective; sealing, heat-insulating devices, etc.);
- means of protection against ultraviolet and electromagnetic radiation (protective, for air ventilation, remote control, etc.);
- laser radiation protection equipment (fencing, safety signs);
- means of protection against noise and ultrasound (fencing, silencers);
- vibration protection means (vibration isolating, vibration absorbing, vibration absorbing devices, etc.);
- means of protection against electric shock (fencing, alarm, isolating devices, grounding, grounding, etc.);
- means of protection against high and low temperatures (fences, thermo-insulating devices, heating and cooling);
- means of protection against mechanical factors (fencing, safety and braking devices, safety signs);
- means of protection against chemical factors (devices for sealing, ventilation and air purification, remote control, etc.).
- means of protection against the effects of biological factors (fencing, ventilation, safety signs, etc.)
Collective protective equipment is divided into: protective, safety, brake devices, automatic control and alarm devices, remote control, safety signs.
Barriers are designed to prevent an accidental person from entering the danger zone. They are used to isolate moving parts of machines, machining areas of machine tools, presses, impact elements of machines from the working area. Devices are divided into stationary, mobile and portable.
Safety devices are used to automatically turn off machines and equipment when deviating from normal operation or when a person enters a hazardous area. These devices can be blocking and restrictive. Blocking devices according to the principle of action are: electromechanical, photoelectric, electromagnetic, radiation, mechanical.
Widely used brake devices , which can be divided into shoe, disk, conical and wedge. Most often, shoe and disc brakes are used. Braking systems can be manual, foot, semi-automatic and automatic.
To ensure safe and reliable operation of the equipment, informational, warning, emergency devices for automatic control and signaling are very important. Control devices are devices for measuring pressure, temperature, static and dynamic loads that characterize the operation of machinery and equipment. Alarm systems are: sound, light, color, symbolic, combined.
Various technical measures are used to protect against electric shock. These are small stresses; electrical separation of the network; control and prevention of insulation damage; protection against accidental contact with live parts; protective grounding; protective shutdown; personal protective equipment.
Personal protective equipment - means that employees use to protect themselves from harmful and dangerous factors in the production process, as well as to protect them from pollution. PPE are used in cases where the safety of work cannot be fully ensured by the organization of production, the design of equipment, and collective protective equipment.
Provision of workers with personal protective equipment must comply with the Standard Industry Standards for the free issuance of special clothing, special shoes and other personal protective equipment to workers and employees, approved. Decree of the Ministry of Labor of Russia dated December 25, 1997 No. 66. 
Depending on the destination, they distinguish:
- insulating suits - pneumosuits; waterproof suits; spacesuits;
- respiratory protection - gas masks; respirators air helmets; pneumomasks;
- special clothes - overalls, semi-overalls; Jackets pants; Costumes bathrobes; raincoats; short fur coats, sheepskin coats; aprons; vests; arm ruffles.
- special shoes - boots, boots, ankle boots, boots, low shoes, shoes, galoshes, bots, shoe covers;
- hand protection - mittens, gloves;
- head protection - helmets; helmets, comforters; hats, berets, hats;
- face protection - protective masks; protective shields;
- hearing protection - anti-noise helmets; headphones; inserts;
- eye protection - safety glasses;
- safety devices - safety belts; dielectric rugs; hand grips; manipulators; knee pads, elbow pieces, shoulder pads;
- protective, dermatological products - detergents; pastes; creams; ointments.
The use of PPE should ensure maximum safety, and the inconvenience associated with their use should be minimized.
Fundamentals of the organization and conduct of rescue and other urgent work (CIDNR). Purpose, content and conditions of the DPR. The forces and means attracted to carry them out.
Natural disasters , accidents and disasters at business facilities, as well as the use of modern means of destruction by the enemy, lead to the destruction of buildings and structures, fires, radioactive, chemical and bacteriological infections, to the defeat of people and animals.
To eliminate the consequences of emergencies , the use of modern means of destruction in civil defense measures, rescue and other urgent operations (CIDNR) are provided.
Rescue operations - actions in the emergency zone to save people, material and cultural values, protect the environment, localize it and suppress or reduce to the minimum possible level the impact of its characteristic dangerous factors (Article 1 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On emergency rescue services and status rescuers ", March 27, 1997).
Rescue work includes:
- conducting reconnaissance routes for the advancement of formations and areas (objects) of work;
- localization and extinguishing of fires in the areas (objects) of work and on the ways out to them;
- the search for the affected and their removal from the rubble, damaged and burning buildings, gassed and smoked rooms;
- opening of destroyed, damaged, littered protective structures and the salvation of those who are in their people;
- search and rescue of drowning during mudflows, floods, floods;
- air supply to the littered protective structures with a damaged filtering system;
- the provision of first medical and first aid to affected people and their evacuation to medical institutions;
- withdrawal (export) of the population from dangerous places to safe areas;
- sanitization of people and disinfection of their clothes, degassing and decontamination of equipment, vehicles, personal protective equipment (PPE), disinfection of territory and structures, food, food raw materials, water and fodder;
- delivery of water, food and clothing to victims;
- providing victims with tents, inflatable and other temporary structures;
- search and rescue of domestic animals;
- collection and protection of material assets and important objects;
- cordon off and protection of the territory in order to ensure quarantine and other activities;
- identification, registration and burial of the dead in the prescribed manner.
Other urgent work is carried out in order to create conditions for the successful and safe conduct of rescue operations, to ensure the livelihoods of the population in emergency zones, lesions and the occurrence of secondary factors of damage.
Emergency response - activities to comprehensively provide rescue operations, provide the population affected by emergency situations, medical and other types of assistance, create the conditions necessary to preserve the life and health of people, maintain their health (Article 1 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On emergency rescue services and the status of rescuers” ", March 27, 1997).
The urgent work includes:
- short-term restoration of roads and road-bridge structures for the movement of rescuers in areas of natural disasters and accidents;
- laying of column ways and arrangement of driveways in the rubble and on infected radioactive substances (SDYAV or S) sections;
- localization of accidents on gas, energy and other networks;
- short-term restoration of damaged and destroyed communication lines, power lines and utility networks in order to ensure rescue operations;
- Strengthening or collapse of unstable structures, threatening collapse and preventing safe movement and rescue operations;
- temporary restoration of water intakes and water treatment.
Tactical tactics and the sequence of D execution depend on the degree and nature of the destruction of buildings and structures, the structure of the rubble, accidents on public utilities networks and production lines, the nature of infection with SDYaV, OM or RV, fires of other conditions that affect the conduct of work.
The sequence of measures to eliminate the consequences of accidents and natural disasters:
- study of the road network of districts, settlements and business facilities affected by the disaster using maps and descriptions;
- aerial photography of the affected areas;
- reconnaissance of facilities where D is required;
- engineering and rescue work;
- a detailed examination of the facility and the compilation of simplified documentation for the organization of work;
- clearing objects from rubble and other obstacles, cleaning up broken equipment, eliminating flooding;
- Organization of commandant service in the accident area and in the adjacent territory;
- other measures aimed at ensuring the successful conduct of work on liquidation of consequences.
DPR should be deployed immediately upon arrival of rescuers at the site of defeat, simultaneously with intelligence. They must be performed continuously day and night, in any weather, in conditions of destruction, fires, infection of the atmosphere and terrain, flooding of the territory and under the influence of other adverse conditions. In order to achieve the greatest success in saving people and material values, the DPRs should be organized and carried out in a limited time.
Connected with the salvation of people are carried out continuously until their completion. If necessary, a shift and rest of lifeguards is organized, meals at the place of work or in designated areas.
Grouping of forces and means for rescue and other urgent work.
To carry out rescue and other urgent work (D in the foci of destruction, chemical, radiation, bacteriological (biological) infection, in emergency situations in peacetime and wartime, a group of forces and means is created, which usually includes:
a) Forces of GO:
- military units of civil defense;
- territorial and object formations of civil defense;
- the formation of civil defense and emergency services;
- Republican and regional operational rescue teams.
For the period of carrying out rescue operations, by decision of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, units of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, departmental specialized emergency rescue, emergency recovery, paramilitary and other formations that are part of the general group of forces and assets and carry out work under operational leadership can be allocated head of rescue operations.
b) Means for conducting D>
GO funds include all types and brands of construction and road machines and mechanisms available in organizations, as well as municipal utilities.
Machines and mechanisms, depending on the purpose, are divided into the following groups:
- machines and mechanisms for driving through, dismantling and clearing rubble, lifting, moving and transporting goods (bulldozers, excavators, graders, scrapers, tractors, tractors, truck cranes);
- machines and mechanisms for disinfecting infected surfaces (watering, sweeping, fire engines, graders, bulldozers);
- mechanisms and tools for punching openings in walls, holes in the ceilings of protective structures for supplying air to them (mechanical, pneumatic, electric, compressor stations with drill and jack hammers) and equipment for metal cutting (kerosene cutters and gasoline cutters);
- mechanisms for pumping water (pumps, motor pumps).
Based on the decision to carry out rescue and other urgent work, it is planned in advance to create a group of forces and a possible procedure for its use (actions) in predefined areas (objects) of work in the lesion centers.
To ensure the continuous conduct of rescue and other urgent operations until they are completed, to increase efforts, expand the front of work, as well as to replace forces and means, civil defense groups may consist of one, two, three echelons and a reserve. Based on the possible situation, each echelon may consist of several shifts. The number of shifts in the composition of echelons is determined depending on the availability of forces and means, their capabilities, the situation at the work site, the forthcoming amount of work, transport capabilities and the time of arrival in the work areas.
The first echelon includes the most mobile forces, manned, trained and equipped with equipment and equipment, capable of arriving in emergency zones, foci of defeats and getting down to work in a short time (usually within the first day).
The second echelon is intended to build up efforts and expand the front of rescue operations, as well as to replace units and formations of the first echelon.
Military units and formations that are part of the echelons are allocated to shifts in accordance with the integrity and organizational structure.
The reserves are intended for solving suddenly arising tasks during rescue and other urgent operations and building up efforts at the most important sites and facilities in order to reduce the deadlines for completing work, replacing forces, as well as transferring efforts of forces and assets to new work sites (facilities).
Basic literature: 2 [206-223].
1. What does DCD include?
2. What is the sequence of measures to eliminate the consequences of accidents and natural disasters?
3. What are the strengths and means for conducting DPR?
4. What are the features of the organization and conduct of DPR?
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