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Alexander 1 policy briefly
, внук Екатерины 2 и сын Павла 1 и княгини Марии Федоровны, родился 23 декабря 1777 года. Alexander 1 Tsar, who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1825 , the grandson of Catherine 2 and the son of Paul 1 and Princess Maria Fedorovna, was born on December 23, 1777. It was originally planned that the domestic policy of Alexander 1 and foreign policy would develop in accordance with the course set by Catherine 2. In the summer of June 24, 1801, an unspoken committee was established under Alexander 1. It included the associates of the young emperor. (неофициальным) совещательным органом России. In fact, the council was the highest (unofficial) deliberative body of Russia.
Александра 1. 5 апреля 1803 года создан Непременный комитет , члены которого имели право оспорить царские указы. The beginning of the reign of the new emperor was marked by the liberal reforms of Alexander 1. On April 5, 1803 an indispensable committee was created, whose members had the right to challenge the tsar's decrees. Some peasants were freed. The decree "On free cultivators" was released February 20, 1803.
придавалось и обучению. Serious importance was attached to learning. The education reform of Alexander 1 actually led to the creation of a state education system. It was headed by the Ministry of Education. Also, on January 1, 1810, a state council was formed under Alexander 1.
: внутренних дел, финансов, военных и сухопутных сил, морских сил, коммерции, народного просвещения, иностранных дел, юстиции. Eight ministries have been established : internal affairs, finance, military and ground forces, naval forces, commerce, public education, foreign affairs, and justice. The ministers who governed them were subordinate to the Senate. Ministerial reform of Alexander 1 was completed by the summer of 1811.
According to the project Speransky M.M. this prominent figure in the country was to be created constitutional monarchy. The sovereign’s power was planned to be limited by a parliament consisting of 2 chambers. . However, due to the fact that the foreign policy of Alexander 1 was rather complicated, and the tension in relations with France was constantly growing, Speransky's reform plan was perceived as anti-state . Speransky himself received his resignation in March 1812.
. The year 1812 was the hardest for Russia. But, the victory over Bonaparte significantly increased the authority of the emperor. крепостного права в стране. A phased elimination of serfdom in the country was planned. Already by the end of 1820, a draft " State Charter of the Russian Empire " had been prepared. The emperor approved it. But putting the project into operation was impossible due to many factors.
». In internal politics, it is worth noting such features as military settlements under Alexander 1. They are better known under the name “ Arakcheevskys ”. The settlements of Arakcheev caused discontent of almost the entire population of the country. Also, a ban was imposed on any secret societies. He began acting in 1822.
Foreign policy in 1801-1812
Russia's participation in the third anti-French coalition.
Shortly before his death, Paul 1 broke off all relations with England and entered into an alliance with the ruler of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, who waged war on a coalition (union) of European states led by Great Britain. Alexander resumed trade with England. Cossack units sent to march on British possessions in India were immediately recalled.
June 5, 1801 », направленную против Бонапарта. Russia and England have concluded a convention on mutual friendship directed against Bonaparte.
Russia in the Caucasus.
Russia pursued an active policy in the Caucasus. As far back as 1801, Eastern Georgia voluntarily entered its composition. In 1803, Mingrelia was conquered. The following year, Imereti, Guria and Ganja became Russian possessions. In 1805, during the Russo-Iranian war , Karabakh and Shirvan were conquered. The accession of Ossetian lands was completed. Such a rapid penetration of Russia into the Transcaucasus worried not only Turkey and Iran, but also the European powers.
. In 1806, the war in Europe broke out with renewed vigor . The fourth anti-French coalition was formed as part of England, Russia , Prussia and Sweden. » Англии — запрета на всякие связи между ней и странами Европейского континента, что должно было подорвать британскую экономику. Napoleon’s response was the announcement in 1806 of the “ continental blockade ” of England - a ban on all ties between it and the countries of the European continent, which was supposed to undermine the British economy.
Russia fought a war on three fronts. Since 1804 she was forced to have significant forces in the East Caucasus to fight Iran . And in December 1806, Napoleon managed to push for war with Russia and Turkey, which were promised not only the support of France, but also the return of the lost Crimea and Georgia. In 1807, Russian troops repelled the Turkish offensive in the Western Caucasus and the Balkans. The Russian fleet under the command of Admiral D.N. Senyavin won major victories in the Dardanelles and Athos naval battles.
Tilsit world of 1807 and its consequences.
The meeting of emperors Alexander I and Napoleon I was held on June 25, 1807 . on a raft on the Neman river in the area of the Prussian city of Tilsit. It led to the conclusion of a peace treaty between the two countries. According to this document, Russia recognized all the conquests of Napoleon. She entered into an alliance with France and pledged to enter the war with England if she would pursue the same course.
Despite a number of clauses of the agreement favorable to Russia, the conditions of the Tilsit peace were more suited to Napoleon. French dominance in Europe strengthened. » больно ударило не только по Англии, но и по самой России, понесшей большой экономический ущерб. The accession of Alexander to the “ continental blockade ” painfully hit not only England, but also Russia itself, which suffered great economic damage.
Military operations began on February 9, 1808 . For a month, Russian troops captured most of Finland and the Aland Islands. March 16, 1808 Emperor Alexander announced the accession of Finland to Russia. In March 1809, a detachment led by General M. B. Barclay de Tolly made an unprecedented crossing on the ice of the Baltic Sea and occupied the city of Umea in Sweden, and the detachment of General P.I. Bagration was sent to the Åland Islands for a subsequent attack on Stockholm.
The defeat of Sweden led to the overthrow of the king and requests for an end to the war. However, Alexander did not immediately go to peace. He convened a meeting of the Sejm in the city of Borgo in Finland. The Sejm announced the accession of the Grand Duchy of Finland to Russia. The Principality received broad self-government rights on the basis of the laws in force in that country under the Swedes.
Only after that began negotiations with Sweden. According to the agreement signed on September 5, 1809 . the peace treaty, Russia transferred the entire territory of Finland, Sweden joined the "continental blockade".
Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812
) Турция воевала против России в союзе с Францией. At the first stage of this war (1806-1807 ), Turkey fought against Russia in alliance with France. The war took a protracted character. Even after the Tilsit peace of the Russian army for a long time it was not possible to change the situation. The turning point came in 1811, after the appointment of M. I. Kutuzov as commander of the Russian troops.
This war began at the initiative of Iran. His army numbered 140 thousand mounted soldiers and 60 thousand infantry, but it was poorly equipped and equipped. At first, the Russian Caucasian army was led by General I.V. Gudovich. In a short time, his troops managed to conquer the Ganja, Sheki, Karabakh, Shirvan, Cuban and Baku khanates. However, after an unsuccessful assault on the city of Erivani (Yerevan) in 1808, General A.P. Tormasov was appointed commander. He won several more victories.
In 1810 the Persians and Turks entered into an alliance against Russia, which, however, helped them little. In 1812 the Russian troops of General P.S. Kotlyarevsky, consisting of 2 thousand people, attacked the 10,000-strong Persian army led by Crown Prince Abbas-Mirza and put them to flight, after which they occupied Arkevan and Lankaran. October 24, 1813 . The Gulistan Peace Treaty was signed. The Iranian Shah recognized the territories of Georgia, Dagestan, Shirvan, Mingrelia, Imereti, Abkhazia and Guria for Russia. He was forced to enter into a military alliance with Russia and give her the right to free navigation in the Caspian. The war resulted in a serious expansion and strengthening of the southern borders of Russia.
The gap of the Russian-French Union.
Alexander unsuccessfully demanded that Napoleon abandon support for the intentions of the Poles to annex the lands of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine to the Duchy of Warsaw. » — присоединил к Франции герцогство Ольденбургское в Германии, наследный принц которого был женат на сестре Александра Екатерине. Finally, in February 1811, Napoleon dealt another blow to his " dear ally " - he annexed to France the Duchy of Oldenburg in Germany, the Crown Prince of which was married to Alexander's sister Catherine. In April 1811, the Franco-Russian alliance broke. Intensive preparations of both countries for the inevitable war began.
Patriotic War of 1812 (briefly)
The reason for the war was the violation by Russia and France of the terms of the Tilsit Treaty. Russia actually abandoned the blockade of England, accepting ships carrying British goods under neutral flags in their ports. France annexed the duchy of Oldenburg, and Napoleon considered it offensive to Alexander's demand for the withdrawal of French troops from Prussia and the duchy of Warsaw. The military clash of the two great powers became inevitable.
June 12, 1812 Napoleon at the head of the 600 thousandth army, crossing the river. Neman invaded Russia. With an army of about 240 thousand people, Russian troops were forced to retreat in front of the French armada. On August 3, the 1st and 2nd Russian armies joined near Smolensk, and a battle was given. Napoleon was not able to win a complete victory. In August, M.I. was appointed commander in chief. Kutuzov. Kutuzov decided to give battle in the area of the village of Borodino. A good position was chosen for the troops. The right flank was protected by the Koloch River, the left was protected by earthen fortifications - flushes, they were defended by the troops of P.I. Bagration. In the center stood the troops of General N.N. Raevsky and artillery. Their positions were closed by the Shevardinsky redoubt.
Napoleon intended to break through the Russian building from the left flank, and then direct all efforts to the center and press Kutuzov’s army to the river. On the flashes of Bagration, he directed the fire of 400 guns. The French launched 8 attacks, which began at 5 a.m., with huge losses. Only at 4 o'clock in the afternoon the French managed to advance in the center, temporarily capturing Raevsky's batteries. In the midst of the battle, a desperate raid into the rear of the French was made by the Lancers of the 1st Cavalry Corps F.P. Uvarova and Cossacks ataman M.I. Platova. This held back the attacking impulse of the French.
The battle ended late in the evening. The troops suffered huge losses: the French - 58 thousand people, the Russians - 44 thousand .
September 1, 1812 at a meeting in Fili, Kutuzov decides to leave Moscow. The retreat was necessary to preserve the army and further struggle for the independence of the Fatherland.
Napoleon entered Moscow on September 2 and stayed there until October 7, 1812, awaiting peace proposals. During this time, most of the city died as a result of fires. Bonaparte's attempts to make peace with Alexander I were unsuccessful.
Having left Moscow in October, Napoleon tried to go to Kaluga and winter in a province not ravaged by war. On October 12, near Maloyaroslavets, Napoleon’s army was defeated and began to retreat along the ravaged Smolensk road, driven by frost and hunger. In pursuit of the retreating French, Russian troops destroyed their formations in parts. The final defeat of the army of Napoleon occurred in the battle of the river. Berezins November 14-16. Only 30 thousand French soldiers were able to leave Russia. On December 25, Alexander I published a manifesto on the victorious end of World War II.
Emperor Nicholas 1 was born on June 25 (July 6), 1796. He was the third son of Paul 1 and Maria Fedorovna. He received a good education, but did not recognize the humanities. в военном искусстве и фортификации. He was well versed in military art and fortification. He had a good knowledge of engineering. However, despite this, the king was not loved in the army. Cruel corporal punishment and coldness led to the fact that the nickname of Nicholas 1, Nikolai Palkin, was entrenched in the soldier’s environment.
- жена Николая 1, обладающая удивительной красотой, - стала матерью будущего императора Александра 2. Alexandra Fedorovna - the wife of Nicholas 1, with amazing beauty - became the mother of the future emperor Alexander 2.
Nicholas 1 ascended the throne after the death of his elder brother Alexander 1. Konstantin, the second candidate for the throne renounced his rights during the life of his elder brother. Nicholas 1 did not know about this and at first swore allegiance to Konstantin. This short period will later be called the Interregnum. Although the manifesto on the accession to the throne of Nicholas 1 was published on December 13 (25), 1825, the legal rule of Nicholas 1 began on November 19 (December 1). And the very first day was overshadowed by the Decembrist uprising on Senate Square, which was crushed, and the leaders were executed in 1826. But Tsar Nicholas 1 saw the need to reform the social system. He decided to give the country clear laws, while relying on bureaucracy, since confidence in the nobility was undermined.
The domestic policy of Nicholas 1 was characterized by extreme conservatism. The slightest manifestations of free thought were suppressed. He defended autocracy with all his might. The secret office led by Benckendorff was engaged in political investigation.
The reforms of Nicholas 1 were limited. Legislation has been streamlined. Under the leadership of Speransky, the release of the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire began. Kiselev carried out a reform of the management of state peasants. The peasants were endowed with land during the resettlement in uninhabited areas, medical centers were built in the villages, agricultural technology innovations were introduced. In 1839 - 1843 financial reform was carried out, which established the relationship between the silver ruble and the bank note. But the question of serfdom remained unresolved.
The foreign policy of Nicholas 1 pursued the same goals as the domestic policy. During the reign of Nicholas 1, Russia fought the revolution not only inside the country, but also outside its borders.
Nicholas 1 died on March 2 (February 18), 1855 in St. Petersburg, and his son, Alexander 2, ascended the throne.
Short biography of Alexander 2
The domestic policy of Alexander 2 was very different from the policy of Nicholas 1 and was marked by many reforms. The most important of these was the peasant reform of Alexander 2, according to which serfdom was abolished in 1861, February 19. This reform caused an urgent need for further changes in many Russian institutions and entailed the implementation of two bourgeois reforms by Alexander.
In 1864 by decree of Alexander 2, a zemstvo reform was carried out. Its goal was to create a system of local self-government, for which the institute of district zemstvo was established.
In 1870 urban reform was carried out, which positively influenced the development of industry and cities. City councils and councils were established, which were representative bodies of power.
The judicial reform of Alexander 2, carried out in 1864, was marked by the introduction of European legal norms, but some features of the previously existing judicial system were preserved, for example, a special court for officials.
Military reform of Alexander 2. Its result is universal military service, as well as army standards close to European standards.
In the course of the financial reform of Alexander 2, the State Bank was created, the birth of official accounting took place.
Foreign policy of Alexander 2 was very successful. During his reign, Russia regained the staggering military power under Nicholas 1.
The great reforms of Alexander 2 were interrupted by his death. March 1, 1881 On that day, Tsar Alexander 2 intended to sign the draft of large-scale economic and administrative reforms of Loris-Melikov. The attempt on Alexander 2, committed by the people's volunteer Grinevitsky, led to his grave wound and death of the emperor.
Alexander 3 - counter-reform policy (briefly)
April 29, 1881 - A manifesto in which the emperor declared his will to preserve the foundations of the autocracy and thereby eliminated the democrats' hopes for the transformation of the regime into a constitutional monarchy.
Alexander III replaced the government of liberal figures with supporters of a tough course. The concept of counter-reforms was developed by its main ideologist K.N. Pobedonostsev.
To strengthen the autocratic system, the system of zemstvo self-government was subjected to changes. In the hands of the zemstvo chiefs united judicial and administrative power. They had unlimited power over the peasants.
The Regulation on Zemstvo Institutions, published in 1890, strengthened the role of the nobility in zemstvo institutions and the control of the administration over them. Significantly increased the representation of landowners in zemstvos through the introduction of high property qualifications.
In 1881 The Regulation on Measures to Preserve State Security and Public Peace was published, which granted numerous repressive rights to the local administration (declare a state of emergency, expel without trial, bring to military court, close educational institutions). This law was used until the reforms of 1917 and became a tool for combating the revolutionary and liberal movement.
In 1892 a new “City Position” was published, which infringed on the independence of the city government. The government included them in the general system of state institutions, thereby putting them under control.
Alexander 3 by the law of 1893 prohibited the sale and pledge of peasant lands, nullifying all the successes of previous years.
In 1884 Alexander launched a university counter-reform, the purpose of which was to educate the intelligentsia obedient to the authorities. Новый университетский устав резко ограничивал автономию университетов, ставя их под контроль попечителей.