The main stages of development of pedagogy.


Theme 1. Pedagogy as a science of human education.


1. The main stages of development of pedagogy.

2. The subject of pedagogy.

3. The main categories of pedagogy.

4. The relationship of pedagogy with other sciences.

The main stages of development of pedagogy.

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Pedagogy got its name from the Greek words "raida - paydos" - a child and "gogos - ago" - to lead. The direct translation of the word "paidagogos" means "guide of the child." Teachers in ancient Greece called the slaves who accompanied their child to school. He also taught at school as a slave. These slaves accompanied the children of wealthy Romans to school, served them, taught them. They were first called teachers. So the name of the profession arose and the term "pedagogy" was formed. Gradually, this term began to be used in a broader sense, as the art of leading a child throughout life and development.

For some time there was an opinion that pedagogy is the art of the teacher's influence on the pupils, but pedagogy is not only art, but also science, has its own objective laws and laws. Until recently, pedagogy was considered as the science of education, training and education of the younger generation. But the development of human society indicates that education and training should be carried out not only during childhood, but also cover the entire period of a person’s life.

So, the definition that is common in modern pedagogy is: pedagogy is the science of upbringing, education and training of people at all stages of their age development. Most briefly, pedagogy can be defined as the science of educating people. However, in order to better understand and why modern pedagogy is exploring, let us turn to the history of its formation as an independent scientific branch.

The practice of education appeared with the first people and will exist as long as humanity exists. Its necessity is determined both by the very nature of mankind and by social factors: older generations always worry that young people possess knowledge and experience, know how to use the productive forces and spiritual values ​​created by them, and be prepared for work and social life. By educating young people, the older generations are preparing a shift for themselves.


In the history of the development of pedagogical science, there are three main stages of its formation, based on the degree of scientific development of pedagogical knowledge:

Stage I , pre-scientific, lasted until the XVII century and was characterized by the accumulation of a significant fund of empirical material in the form of separate scattered pedagogical information, which was recorded in the form of beliefs, rules, requirements, traditions, customs, rites, which are now the basis of folk pedagogy; theoretical understanding of the empirical educational experience in philosophical treatises; the emergence and consolidation in the use of a number of pedagogical concepts.


The second stage , conceptual, lasted from the end of the 17th to the beginning of the 20th century and was characterized by the creation of separate theoretical concepts of upbringing and education with the dominant role of the theory of instruction; accumulation of factual material and experience of pedagogical activity; the selection and justification of the leading components of scientific and pedagogical knowledge (principles, methods, forms of organization of the educational process). However, an analysis of the pedagogical literature of that time indicates the absence of a clear distinction between the areas of activity of the processes of education and training, the identification of the concepts of "education", "training", "education", the possibility of holistic development of the scientific foundations of pedagogy in the context of the level of development of science of that time.

Stage III , systematic, lasts from the beginning of the 20th century and is characterized by a high level of generalization, systematization and structuring of pedagogical empirical knowledge obtained as a result of numerous pedagogical experiments; the further development of the category apparatus of science; the creation of holistic scientifically based systems for organizing the educational process; the formation of pedagogy as a scientific system.

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Pedagogy as a separate science first declared itself in the 16th century. Until this period, it was an integral part of philosophy.

Education arises at an early stage of the primitive communal system in connection with the emergence of the division of labor, with the need to transfer the acquired knowledge and skills to the younger generation to prepare them for life. Consequently, labor has become the main factor in the emergence of education. At that time, children learned the experience gained during joint work and communication, education was the same for all children of a clan or tribe, it was not yet carried out by special people in special educational institutions.

The development of society, the emergence of a slave system, the further differentiation of labor led to the emergence of special educational institutions and the emergence of people whose profession was teaching and raising children.

We have the first historical information about schools for boys from Ancient Egypt , the countries of the Middle East and ancient Greece. The emergence of private property, classes and the state gives education of a class nature: children of different classes receive different education and training.

Ancient Greece gave us examples of the dependence of upbringing on social and economic conditions. Two opposing schools - Spartan and Athenian - testify to this. The main goal of Spartan education was to educate a courageous, physically developed warrior who could survive in difficult circumstances. This is precisely what the Spartan education system was aimed at, which was comprehensively subdued to the interests of Sparta and was of a social nature. Athens, which was the center of trade, crafts, science and art, the goal of upbringing was the upbringing of a harmoniously developed person, combining the development of the mind and aesthetic taste with physical perfection. The only thing that united these schools was contempt for work, as things that only slaves should do.

In ancient Greece, the first pedagogical theories about the development of personality were born. Among their authors are Socrates , Plato , Aristotle , Democritus , Protagoras and others.

Christianity opposed the ancient ideal of physical strength and beauty with a man preoccupied with saving the soul, self-education of the internal, and not the external principle. The teachings of the philosophers of the Middle Ages ( St. Augustine , Severin Boethius , Thomas Aquinas ) determined a separate direction in the development of pedagogical thought about the formation of personality, based primarily on the principles of Christianity. The Middle Ages gives us two types of education: knightly and spiritual, which differ from each other. The main goal of spiritual and church education was the study of the Holy Scriptures and various scientific works, it was interpreted, hence its dogmatic character and cramming, as a single teaching methodology.

The Renaissance advocates the liberation of the individual from feudal oppression and religious asceticism. The main principle of this era was humanism, there is love and respect for man, which is considered as the center of the universe. Prominent philosophers offer a humane attitude to children, the comprehensive development of personality. Renaissance humanism promotes the development of pedagogical thought, philosophers and teachers (Vittorino da Feltre, Francois Rabelais, Erasmus of Rotterdam ) are looking for new and better ways of education and training, mainly in order to realize the idea of ​​educating the individual.

Read and outline information on the activities of outstanding teachers of different eras!

The development of society, the emergence in the historical arena of a new class - the bourgeoisie, the need to develop production have led to the need for a sufficiently large number of educated people. It was at this time (XVII century.) Pedagogy leaves the composition of philosophy and begins to form as a separate science. This process is connected with the name of Jan Amos Comenius, an outstanding Czech teacher who, in his book "The Great Didactics" theoretically substantiated the principles, methods and forms of teaching, which became the basis of the class-lesson system, which operates today.

In the XVIII century. a whole galaxy of encyclopedic scientists, enlightenments appears, thanks to whom this era went down in history as the era of Enlightenment . Among them, special attention was paid to the problems of education by Francois Voltaire (1694-1778), Denis Didro (1713-1784), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). In England, John Locke (1632-1704) proposed a system for raising a virtuous and active gentleman.

The further history of pedagogy is connected with the names of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) - the founder of the theory and practice of primary education and training, as well as the founder of special pedagogical education Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), who made an attempt to theoretically substantiate pedagogy using philosophy and psychology ; Adolf Friedrich Wilhelm Diesterweg (1790-1866), who put forward the idea of ​​universal education, etc.

K.D. brought world fame to domestic pedagogical science. Ushinsky (1824-1870), who defended the principle of the nation of teaching and raising children.

In the second half of the XIX - beginning of XX centuries. in Ukraine, great attention is paid to the problems of education and upbringing by famous writers, figures of culture and art, educators - T.G. Shevchenko (1814-1861) - "South Russian Primer" (1861), Grabovsky (1864-1902), Lesya Ukrainsky (1871-1913), O.V. Dukhnovich (1803-1865), Kh.D. Alchevsk (1841-1902) and others.

Noteworthy is the Soviet period in the development of pedagogy associated with the names of S.T. Shatsky (1878-1934), P.P. Blonsky (1884-1942), A.S. Makarenko (1888-1939), V.A. Sukhomlinsky (1918-1970), as well as the pedagogy of cooperation, proposed by PI. O. Amonashvili, V.F. Shatalova et al.

The systemic period of the development of pedagogical knowledge, which began at the beginning of the 20th century, continues to this day and is characterized by the further development of all branches of pedagogy; a high level of generalization and classification of the conceptual apparatus of science; the development of pedagogy as a scientific system.

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