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Goncharova O. M. Poetic heritage of Lomonosov and Russian poetry of the XIX - XX centuries.




Turning to the theme of M.V. Lomonosov’s creative heritage , one can identify the presence of specific semantic strata in Russian poetry, which are primarily associated with the representation of the reflection of the lyrical Self over the nature of the generated text and the created Word . In generally accepted terminology, we are talking about the "theme of poet and poetry", which, of course, is inherent in any literary system. However, in the Russian tradition, it has special conceptual foundations and figurative-speech solutions. Manifesting quite late as an area of ​​personal creativity within secular culture, Russian poetry naturally activates attention to the problems of poetic communication, a special type of speaking and its role in the space of culture.

The “literary field” that preceded the appearance of the poet Lomonosov and the direction of his creative intentions was, indeed, problematic: to a greater extent it was determined not by participation in global historical and literary transformations, but by the tasks of self-organization, self-determination and institutionalization. An effective solution to these problems was a series of ideally projective constructions (primarily in the theories of Lomonosov and Trediakovsky ), which constructed a new reality for Russia - national literature.

The new business, according to Lomonosov, “unknown to the former,” required not only the outlines of the “literary field”, but also the serious conceptualizations necessary for him of such aesthetic phenomena unknown to the Russian tradition as poetry , poetic communication , and the Poet .

The creation of a poetic conceptosphere required a complex organization of meanings and their correlation, it was with this that the subtlest and most complex transitions from theoretical declarations to artistic practice were associated: for example, frank orientation to ideas and images of the Church Slavonic tradition in Lomonosov's poetic texts. The poetry of the 18th century gradually “develops” such necessary elements of artistic discourse as its own memory of the origins and principles, its own semantic contexts, the image of the Russian Poet , which become the basic semantic foundations and artistic experience of the future Russian lyrics.

The source of all these conceptualizations should be sought from the very sources of the formation of Russian lyrics of modern times - in the poetry of Lomonosov. The innovative nature of the poet’s work, the specifics of the functioning of the new poetic speech in the emerging culture of the early 18th century naturally demanded from him the designation and awareness of a new type of speech activity, the determination of the status of the Russian Poet . The first act of poetic self-reflection, necessary in this case, becomes the odic image of poetic delight , which appeared already in Lomonosov’s first ode “On the Capture of Khotin” (1739): “A rapturous mind captivated, Leads to the top of a high mountain”.


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Enthusiasm , usually understood today as a special emotional state of the poet, has for Lomonosov, who knew and appreciated the bookishness of medieval Russia ("On the Use of Church Books in the Russian >

The word “in antiquity was called the state of the soul, freed for a while from the burden of the flesh, which was pulled out of the body like a dungeon” (From the history of Russian words 1993: 55), this semantics “has not lost its activity for speakers of the modern Russian >enthusiasm as an ascent to Heaven was assimilated by the Russian reader through patristic texts and Holy Scripture.

The image of ascension associated with the mystical introduction to the sacred world can be considered generally accepted for the previous tradition as a whole. So, in the “Word to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary” sv. We read by John Damaskin , whose texts were highly appreciated by Lomonosov: “We shall rise upon a mysterious mountain, above worldly and material thoughts, and having entered into the Divine and impenetrable darkness in the light of God, sing the unlimited power of the Virgin” (Selected words 1868: 116).



The poetic formulas that accompany the image of poetic delight in Lomonosov’s poetry are also stably traditional. The description of the mystical state of his enthusiastic Poet (“I see with clever eyes”, “our paradise is beautiful,” “my spirit flows to the limits of the world”) frankly correlates with that figurative series (“clever tow”, “mental paradise”, “clever paradise ”), Which is found in religious educational texts: for example, by the same Damaskin or by Russian Baroque authors - K. Istomin (“ Clever Paradise ”, 1694) and E. Slavinetsky. The Russian baroque as a whole was characterized by the poet’s understanding as “a translator of the words and thoughts of God” (Sazonova 1991: 33).

However, within the framework of religious culture, such an understanding is natural and natural, but reproduced by a lay poet in a secular text, it looks different and has a high sign. In Lomonosov’s texts, poetic delight arising from the contexts of national tradition defined creative inspiration as an ecstatic state of the lyrical self in its spiritual ascension to the heavenly one , emphasized by the motif of the top .

However, in other odes of Lomonosov, this semantics is manifested even more clearly: “Where am I now delighted? / I partake of heavenly food, / Ascended to the top of Olympus! / Divine face shines / To me and the heart illuminates / With a shining ray of bounty! ”(1750). Later, it was precisely such a spatial arrangement of the Poet that would become constant for Russian lyrics. For example, “I will be an extraordinary guy / I will separate myself from the perishable world” (G. Derzhavin), “Sorrow flies” (V. Zhukovsky), “I will ascend not without effort / To the area of ​​pure heights” (A. Zhemchuzhnikov), “When delight hugs me, I live doubly and I see! ”(L. Yakubovich).

The concept created by Lomonosov and seeming strange to the poet-innovator, oriented, as is commonly believed, to the European experience, is quite natural for the cultural tradition. It was the specificity of national thinking that determined the fact that sacred functions, previously approved for a religious teaching word, now automatically transferred to a different type of word - secular, secular, and, naturally, the very “figure of a lay poet” itself (Panchenko 2000: 314) .

Thus, V. Trediakovsky, expressing the general ideas of the Lomonosov era, in “Discourse on an ode in general” (1734) not only elevates the Russian ode to psalms, but also gives its description that clearly indicates the understanding of poetic creativity as “mental speculation”. In this case, the characterization of the special state of the poet in his delight brings the ode to the genre of visions, and the poet to the visionary visionary. For example, in the poetry of M. Kheraskov: “The veil of peace has been opened to me! / Enthusiastic spirit, the lyre trembles ... / I am silent, marveling and singing / Oh! since the visions are kind! / I see abysses full of stars, / I am standing among thousands of worlds ... ”(Mir, 1796).

The semantics of poetic ecstasy will later take on other forms of expression: in Russian poetry, understanding of creativity as a disease, sleep , delirium , and dream will appear. For example: “But in the sweet fits of heavenly disease / May my joy enter my soul!” (V. Benediktov); “My beautiful ailment is inspiration” (E. Grebenka); “I am sick with a sweet illness” (N. Klyuyev); “And it burned me, and beat, and shook” (I. Shklyarevsky). The image of creative enthusiasm as a disease will become the main subject of poetic reflection in the poem by Y. Smelyakov “If I Get Ill ...” (1940).

The last lines of this text are “Not with white wafers / My path is dotted with clouds, but with clouds. / I’m leaving the corridor away from you, / but the Milky Way ”- frankly remind the Lomonosovskys -“ God moves with his mouth, I will start broadcasting with him / The hunting attracts me to walk above the stars / And sweep the cloud, despising the earthly lowness ”(1747). The semantic dialogue is based on the fact that the Poet of Lomonosov is equated with the prophet Moses: to him - the doubter and the “tongue-tied” - “The Lord said: I will be with your mouth and will teach you what to say” (Exodus 4: 11-12).

This semantics was close and understandable to Lomonosov’s contemporaries: for example, M. Kheraskov will write forty years later: “God speaks in me - I do not write these things” (Vladimir, 1787). The same allusions are in the text of Smelyakov: the path of his Poet - “Milky” - is symbolically read as the path of Moses, since in the Russian tradition this constellation was called the “Moses road” (Dal 1994: 2: 892; Fasmer 1996: 2; 639).

The image of delight created by Lomonosov turned out to be semantically saturated and important element of poetic communication, which steadily models in the texts of the subsequent tradition the vertical structure of the poetic event, the location of the Poet in it, the source of the word and speaking, as well as a special space of poetic meanings. The main condition for the state of poetic delight is silence and silence in Lomonosov, images, of course, of a religious-mystical plan. In the patristic tradition, they manifested the specific features of mystical communication with the Divine , Inexpressible , Eternity .

There reign, according to the words of J. Porage, revered by the Russian religious mystics, “deep silence, and such a terrible Silence, which cannot be expressed in words, nor in thought, nor understood: they are far more superior than any expressions and words, as well as any thoughts and imagination . In this indescribable Silence and Silence, which is free from all tone, sound and noise of any movement, is the nature of Quiet Eternity, and for this it is called by God itself ”(Porage 1787: 169).

We find similar statements in the younger contemporary Lomonosov - sv. Tikhon Zadonsky: “When there is a different voice in a temple, a noise happens, then no matter what is said to a person, it does not hear; for that noise hinders him and closes his hearing — it happens in the soul as well, ”and therefore“ every Christian must take care and pray that the inner soul of the ears be open, ”and then“ he hears every word of God, and admits it to the insides of his soul ”(Zadonsky 2000: 149–150). The interpretation of silence accepted in the Russian tradition makes it possible to see the connection of the poetic word with the special word “internal” or “silent” prayer.

"Secret in heart with God conversation" called this prayer of St. Dm Rostovsky: “Inner prayer does not require verbally, neither searches for books, nor uses the tongue of tongue, nor the throat of the voice, but the very precision of raising the mind to God and deepening into it” (Rostovsky 1848: 1; 149). The connection between silence and poetry, established by Lomonosov, was deeply assimilated by subsequent Russian lyricists, and therefore in Russian poetry “only silence clearly understands” ( V. Zhukovsky ) and “understanding is silent” (A. Voznesensky).

After all, the poet’s task is to convey “inexpressible”, “inexpressible by nothing” - “What >

Thus, the source of the poetic word is the divine authority, and the Poet , or rather, the soul of the poet - is a kind of mediator, guide, diviner. Only the chosen one is capable of it - an ascetic, a prophet: “The few chosen understand / The >

However , the Prophet Poet was already seen by Lomonosov in his poetic searches, continued by Derzhavin (“Yearning of the Soul”, 1810), then by L. Yakubovich (“Inspiration”, 1836): “Isn’t it, throwing the world of the body, / In the holy delight of being , / In thunder, fire, semi-heavenly / Elijah ascended to heaven? The prophetic gift of the Poet was also recognized later: for example, in the lyrics of the Soviet era, although it was accompanied by special historical circumstances that did not seem to involve appeals to sacred characteristics. “My comrades prepared as prophets,” - B. Slutsky wrote about the generation of pre-war young poets (“Voice of a friend”). Texts with the name "Prophet" are in the creative heritage of E. Vinokurov and I. Shklyarevsky.

The image of Lomonosov’s poetic delight was not just a formula of the odic text, but semantization within the framework of the patristic tradition of the high, sacred mission of the Poet , as well as the very nature of poetic creativity. The question asked by Lomonosov - “Where am I now admired?” - becomes the main creative intention in the lyrical texts of the 18th – 20th centuries, which determines the nature of poetic communication both in terms of semantics and in terms of pragmatics.

In the “Russian context,” notes Yu. M. Lotman, “the erased metaphor of classicism -“ poetry is the >

Therefore, the subject of poetry is the “presence of the Creator in creation” (V. Zhukovsky), as Lomonosov was the first to say: “Through the waves, the flame I see paradise; / There God extends his right hand ”, then Derzhavin (“ souls with eyes / I will see the future bliss ”) and Karamzin (“ I will sing hymns to the creator / To you, my God, omnipotent God ”). And poets of the 20th century remembered this: for example, V. Bryusov - “In the gorge of the walls I’m all on guard / May I catch the face of the Lord.”

In this case, the Poet’s presence becomes “a different world”, “a mental paradise”: “Oh, how beautiful the light shines, / While looking at a different country” (M. Lomonosov), “My soul aspires to another world” (K. Balmont), “Your soul ascends / To the door of a dreamy paradise” (F. Sologub). His spiritual being naturally turns into the continuity of this being. So, for example, in A. Twardowski’s poem “I Am Killed Beneath Rzhev,” the lyrical I , having completely lost her physicality and materiality (“Neither my eyes, nor her stitches / From my tunic”), nevertheless fulfills the intended poetic function of “providence” - “Let our voice is inaudible, / you must know it ”, and this voice, as in the tradition, is“ conceivable ”(“ This voice is our conceivable ”).

The “divine word”, sounding in poetry, provides both the immortality of the poet’s soul and the immortality of poetry itself. The question of the "immortality of the poet" was posed and comprehended by Lomonosov, creating the first poem in a long poetic line, "I Have Erected a Sign of Immortality" (1747). It is this text that initiates a kind of creative “dialogue” of Russian poets, which lasted almost three centuries:

M. Lomonosov - “I Will Not Die at All” (1747),

M. Muravyov - “Or Am I All Dying?” (1791),

G. Derzhavin - “So! - I will not die all ”(1795),

K. Batyushkov - “I will die, and all will die with me” (1806),

A. Odoevsky - “I Died Entirely” (1828),

A. Pushkin - “No, I won’t die all” (1836),

F. Glinka - “So All I Won't Die” (1842),

K. Sluchevsky - “When I Die, but Not All” (1897),

A. Kondratiev - “No, I won’t die at all” (1910),

B. Kornilov - “Then I Die At All” (1932),

N. Zabolotsky “I Will Not Die” (1947).

This “dialogue” can hardly be described as the poetics of “common places” or “citation”: it is obviously connected with the problems of synchronous semantic memory and can be defined, in the terminology of IP Smirnov, as “the memory of discourse” (Smirnov 1995: 126), in our case, the memory of Lomonosov’s creative discourse.

Indeed, the poet’s immortality, like resurrection and rebirth, was also understood by A. Sumarokov - “I will rise again” (The Hour of Death, 1765); and N. Karamzin: “When I die, I will fall asleep and wake up again” (“Poetry”, 1787); and G. Derzhavin - “I Will Rise, I Will Rise” (“Swallow”, 1794), however, this semantics is implicitly contained in many other texts. Thus, poetic immortality in Russian poetry was bestowed on the Poet for his connection with the Divine ; Derzhavin’s poem “Immortality of the Soul” is dedicated to substantiating this concept.

The granted posthumous existence is reflected in the Russian lyrics in the theme of “chosenness”: after all, there are few genuine Poets , elects and ascetics: “Not many true prophets / With the seal of mystery on the forehead” (D. Venevitinov). In the same poetic logic, D. Samoilov will write about the “heavenly” gift of the Russian “geniuses” (“That's all, the eyes of the genius were joined ...”, “Death of the poet”, 1966).

The poetic "conversation" with God naturally requires from the Poet and the special state of the soul or its synonym - the heart . Сердце появляется рядом с поэтическим восторгом именно у Ломоносова («жар сердечный»), затем семантику сердца разрабатывает Державин: «в сердечной простоте беседовал о Боге», «ум и сердце человечье / Были гением моим», «я любил чистосердечье».

Затем это становится непременным атрибутом поэтического дара: «Святые таинства, лишь сердце знает вас», (В. Жуковский), «Восторг свободный / Горит в сердечной глубине» (Д. Веневитинов), «простосердечный сын свободы» (М. Лермонтов), «послушный стих / Звучал моим чистосердечьем» (А. Подолинский), «Мой талант – мое детское сердце» (В. Каменский), «Собеседник сердца и поэт» (Н. Заболоцкий). Восторженная к небу душа и «чистое» сердце Поэта в общей концептосфере восторга оказываются крылатыми или способны к полету .

Этот образ расширяет семантику восторжения наверх . Восходит он, конечно, к платоновскому мифу о душе, однако сохраняет связь и с религиозно-мистическим контекстом: в средневековой русской книжности, как показала В. П. Адрианова-Перетц, были широко распространены метафоры «полета ума, мысли», «крыльного летания» (Адрианова-Перетц 1958). К «облакам взлетала» «муза» Ломоносова в оде 1759 г., да и в часто употребляемых им словах «восторг» и «восхищение» имплицитно содержится семантика полета.

Другие примеры: «То ль я души моей пареньем / Не вознесуся в Твой чертог» (Г. Державин); «Освобожусь воображеньем / И крылья духа подыму» (Е. Баратынский); «Чую размах крыла» (О. Мандельштам); «Я был прекрасен и крылат/ В богоотеческом жилище» (Н. Клюев); «И душа моя касаткой / В отдаленный край летит» (Н. Заболоцкий). In the XX century. семантика крылатой поэтической души будет откровенно представлена в текста В. Маяковского «Разве у вас не чешутся обе лопатки» (1929) и Ю. Мориц «Рождение крыла» (1964).

Крылатость и отказ от «земной низкости» закономерно порождает вопрос о сущности антропологической природы Поэта , которому «мучительно тягостно тело» («Genius» И. Коневского, 1899) и «темницы жизни» («Творчество» Ф. Сологуба, 1893). «Дано мне тело – что мне делать с ним..?», – так поставит этот вопрос О. Мандельштам. Если учесть влияние религиозно-мистических концепций на формирование семантики Поэта и его творчества, то можно отметить, что одним из условий приобщения к Божественному является преодоление телесности. В тех же категориях мыслилось мистиками и близкое к концепту бессмертия души возрождение или воскресение.

В поэтическом понимании обретение особого тела и особого языка, то есть освобождение от «плена телесности»: от «чешуи земных страстей» (Л. Якубович), от «земной своей одежды» (М. Деларю), оказывается сопоставимым с натурфилософским превращением Я в природную субстанцию. Подобное превращение закономерно обусловлено тем, что понимание Божественного сопряжено с понятием Высший Свет Натуры. Темы и мотивы слиянности человека с природой постоянны в русской лирике в самых разнообразных вариантах. Например, «А то, что было мною, то, быть может, / Опять растет и мир растений множит…» (Н. Заболоцкий) или «А я – осенняя трава, / Летящие по ветру листья» (Г. Шпаликов).

С той же семантикой связаны и зооморфные уподобления Поэта в русской традиции: он может явиться или быть сопоставимым с лебедем (Г. Державин, В. Жуковский, Ф. Тютчев, Н. Заболоцкий, Н. Рубцов), медведем (Н. Оцуп), собакой (И. Дмитриев, Ф. Сологуб, В. Маяковский), снегирем (Д. Самойлов). Еще одним вариантом таких метаморфоз можно полагать образ Поэта-кузнечика , особенно популярный в русской художественной натурфилософии (Я. Полонский, В. Печерин, В. Хлебников, Н. Заболоцкий и др.). В поэтической традиции кузнечик – перевоплощение или отражение Поэта , он связан с идеями бессмертия , откровения , особого поэтического языка , сокровенного Слова .

Показательно, что впервые подобное логико-семантическое построение было осуществлено Ломоносовым. Его текст о кузнечике («Стихи, сочиненные на дороге в Петергоф…», 1761) воспроизводит платоновский миф о цикадах («Федр»). Хотя и принято считать, что Ломоносов просто перевел анакреонтическое «К цикадам», но добавление последнего стиха заставляет видеть в тексте русского поэта более сложное поэтическое образование. Последние строки акцентируют внимание читателя на своеобразном поэтическом автобиографизме стихотворения, в котором четко сопоставлены Я и кузнечик . Но важнее другое: Ломоносов противопоставляет речевую деятельность кузнечика и обыденного человека как блаженную и счастливую – несвободной и зависимой.