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Three stages of World War II
Stages of the Great Patriotic War:
a) The defensive phase of June 22, 1941 - November 18, 1942
b) A radical change on November 19, 1942 - until the end of 1943.
c) The liberation phase of January 1944 until May 9, 1945
The outbreak of war for the Soviet Union began tragically. The enemy was rapidly advancing through the territory of the USSR, but thanks to the heroic actions of the front and rear, the Soviet people carried out a turning point, seized the initiative to and expelled the enemy from the territory of the USSR, liberated the countries of Europe, defeated the Nazis in Germany.
a) Defensive (June 22, 1941 - November 18, 1945). Soviet troops were forced to defend and retreat in all three directions.
At this stage, German troops owned the initiative. They imposed the course of military operations of the Red Army. The preponderance of forces was on the side of Germany. The troops of the Red Army had to defend and retreat in all directions.
In implementing the Barbarossa plan in 1941, Germany launched an offensive in 3 directions (in the north to Leningrad, in the central to Moscow, in the south to Kiev). The balance of power at this stage was not in favor of the USSR. According to the Barbarossa plan, through the deep advance of German tank wedges in three directions, it was planned to break up the forces of the Red Army in a short period of 4-6 weeks. To accomplish this task, Hitler allocated most of the ground forces. Together with the allies (Finland, Romania, Hungary) 5.5 milles invaded the USSR. people., 3.8 thousand tanks, 4.6 thousand aircraft. The USSR could then oppose fascist Germany only 3.3 mil. people, 10.4 thousand tanks, 8.6 thousand aircraft. But the vast majority of this technique was obsolete. The surprise attack of the enemy also became the cause of the USSR’s failures in the summer of 1941.
Based on these reasons, the Red Army is retreating, leaving the country. To the north, the enemy approached Leningrad, and the city was blocked.
In the central direction, after the capture of Minsk and Smolensk, an attack on Moscow began. The Barbarossa Plan is entering its final phase. Operation Typhoon has begun.
On September 30, the enemy began to carry out this operation. To this end, Hitler concentrated up to half of the troops on the Soviet-German front in the central direction. The location of the Soviet troops was unsuccessful. The armies of the Western and Reserve Fronts were surrounded. They fettered the advances of the enemy, but few managed to get out of the encirclement. 663 thousand people were captured. The danger to Moscow increased, from October 8, by order of the command, the evacuation of Moscow factories and other measures in case of abandonment of the capital began. At the same time, the commander of the Reserve Front is changing.
G.K. Zhukov . To strengthen the situation, four divisions of the militia are being created, cadets of military schools are sent to the front. These forces slowed the advances of the enemy for several days, but could not stop him. Inexperienced soldiers were killed in battles near Moscow. Fresh troops arrived in Moscow from the Far East after clarifying the issue that Japan would not begin military operations against the USSR in the near future. The situation near Moscow remained threatening. The evacuation of government agencies and citizens began. On October 20, a state of siege was introduced in Moscow.
: In the attack of the enemy against Moscow and the implementation of Operation Typhoon, there are 2 stages :
Stage 1 - From September 30 to October 30 - an attack on Moscow from the South. Guderian's advanced armies captured the Eagle and moved to Tula. But the only tank brigade M.E. Katukova, consisting of T-34 tanks, did not miss the Germans. By the end of October, the enemy approached Moscow at a distance of 100 km.
Stage 2 - November 15 to November 30 - after the reformation and a short rest, a new offensive against Moscow began. This time the enemy was advancing from the north to Moscow to the cities of Kalinin, Klin, Solnechnogorsk. A particularly difficult situation has developed on the Volokolamsk highway. Here, on November 15, 50 German tanks broke through the front line and moved to Moscow. To stop them, from the division I.V. Panfilov was sent a detachment of 33 people led by political instructor Klochkov. At the cost of their lives, the soldiers of the detachment stopped the tanks, did not let them go to the capital. At this stage, the enemy approached Moscow at a distance of 25 km. the Nazis were preparing to celebrate the victory, printed invitations to the parade.
The parade really took place. But it was a parade of Soviet troops dedicated to the 24th anniversary of the October Revolution. On November 7, 1941, Soviet soldiers and military equipment marched along Red Square. And directly proceeded to the front, to defend the capital.
German troops were preparing for the third phase of the attack on Moscow. But they did not manage to implement it. Because on the night of December 5-6, Red Army troops launched a counterattack at a distance of 1000 km. The enemy held steady, but could not resist, because the forces were spent, there were no reserves. Climatic conditions are very difficult. Thus began the liberation of the occupied territory near Moscow. The offensive lasted until January, the enemy was driven back from Moscow at a distance of 100-250 km. So the immediate threat of the capture of Moscow was eliminated. This was the first defeat of the Nazis in World War II, which meant the complete disruption of the plan for a lightning war (see map).
In the south, the enemy captured Kiev, Odessa. But the Barbarossa plan was frustrated. The enemy did not succeed in a short, lightning war. The German command is planning a new military campaign for the summer of 1942. The enemy is still strong and has an advantage over both numerically and technically. But this time, Hitler can prepare an offensive in only one direction. And he chooses the south, to Stalingrad. The German command is launching false information for the Soviet leadership that the operation "Kremlin" is being prepared. Therefore, in the spring of 1942, the Soviet command, believing this information, strengthens its position near Moscow.
And the enemy, by the summer of 1942 , unexpectedly moves south, captures Voronezh, Kharkov and moves to the Volga in the region of Stalingrad. This enemy action again took the Soviet troops by surprise. From July 17 to November 18, the heroic defense of Stalingrad began. It lasted 200 days of continuous fighting. Civilians remained in the city, evacuation was not carried out. Therefore, women, children, and the elderly appeared on the battlefield. They hid in the basements of ruined buildings. The enemy sought to reach the Volga and carry out the crossing. But they did not succeed in doing this. The key to the capture of the city was Mamaev Kurgan. This is the dominant height in the city. On the defense of the city stood two armies 62 and 64 under the command of Generals V.I. Chuikova and M.S. Shumilova.
b) A radical change (November 19, 1942 - until the end of 1943) After the defensive operations near Stalingrad, the Soviet troops went on the counteroffensive and drove the enemy away from Stalingrad. In the summer of 1943, the Battle of Kursk was the completion of a radical change during the Second World War. Having completed the operation near Kursk, Soviet troops continued to advance until the end of 1943
At this stage, the ratio of forces becomes approximately the same. By the autumn of 1942, the restructuring of the economy on the production of military products was completed in the USSR, and factories evacuated to the rear began to work. By November 1942, the forces of German troops near Stalingrad were undermined, all reserves were used up. The 6th Army, under the command of General Paulus, concentrated in the Stalingrad region near the Volga. In this situation, the Soviet command developed a military operation near Stalingrad. It consisted of two stages. On November 19, 1942, Operation Uranus began. Her task was to surround the German group near Stalingrad.
The offensive of two fronts began from the South and the North . November 23, they joined in the area of the city of Kalach-on-Don. Thus, the 6th army of Paulus was surrounded. The total number of the encircled group was 330 thousand soldiers and officers. After that, the second stage of Operation Ring began. Her task was to prevent the possibility of a breakthrough of the encircled group. The complete completion of hostilities near Stalingrad occurred in February 1943. The strategic initiative passed to the Soviet troops. For the summer campaign of 1943, the German command could carry out an attack on only one sector of the front. For the offensive, Hitler chose the area of the Kursk ledge. Here the front line created a half ring. The German command is developing the operation " Citadel ", its goal is to close the ring near Kursk.
Make the so-called "Stalingrad in German . " But the Soviet command foresaw the design of this operation. Intelligence confirmed the validity of these assumptions. In this situation, deliberate defense tactics were chosen. July 5, 1943 German troops launched the operation "Citadel", but could not break the front line, so strong defensive fortifications were created to prevent the Germans from closing the ring near Kursk. To protect this section of the front, the command creates 7 fronts. This allowed us to create an unprecedented defense in depth, up to 30 km. Before the operation "Citadel", the Soviet side carries out counter-training.
An hour before the shelling of Soviet positions began, the Soviet side fired on enemy positions, thereby causing great damage to enemy forces. The main task of the Soviet troops at that time was to disable as many enemy forces as possible. This was possible to do, therefore, only a week later, on July 12, Soviet troops went on the counterattack. On this day, the famous Prokhorov battle took place . This is a tank battle near the village of Prokhorovka, when 1200 tanks from both sides took part in it. By August 23, the Kursk ledge was completely eliminated. The battle of Kursk ended in a convincing victory.
This battle is considered the end of a radical change during the Second World War. For the first time in commemoration of the celebration of victory in a major battle, artillery salute was given. This became a tradition in the future. After the end of the Battle of Kursk, Soviet troops continued to advance successfully until the end of the year. On November 6, Soviet troops immediately crossed the Dnieper and liberated Kiev. In this way, the Soviet side provided a springboard for offensives next year.
c) Liberation (January 1944 - May 1945)
In January 1944, the expulsion of the enemy from the territory of the USSR began. The absolute superiority of forces was on the side of the USSR in equipment, weapons and the number of troops, which ensured the successful conduct of several major military operations to the Soviet command.
In January 1944, from 14 to 28, the blockade of Leningrad was completely lifted. The enemy was driven back hundreds of kilometers. The Leningrad Region, Novgorod, Pskov was liberated.
In March, a military operation began to liberate the Right-Bank Ukraine. As a result, in the spring, Soviet troops first reached the border of the USSR.
In May, Odessa and Sevastopol were liberated and the Crimean peninsula completely liberated.
On June 3, 1944, Operation Bagration began. This is the battle for the liberation of Belarus.
In the fall, the liberation of East Prussia began.
As a result of these military operations, by the middle of autumn 1944 the border of the USSR was completely restored.
In 1945, hostilities were fought in Eastern Europe.
Since January, the operation to liberate East Prussia continued and successfully ended.
The Vistula-Oder operation began in February . This is the liberation of the territory from the Vistula River to the Oder River. As a result, Poland was completely liberated, and Soviet troops reached the German border. They faced the task of freeing the country from the fascist leadership. But the Hitlerite government did not want to allow Soviet troops to Germany, hoping that Germany would be liberated by Allied forces. In this regard, in the western part of Germany, the cities surrendered without a fight, while the Red Army forces had to advance to Berlin with battles. Despite this, the advanced units of the Red Army turned out to be 60 km from Berlin by March 1945, the allies were 250 km away. Under these conditions, the Soviet command is preparing an operation to liberate Berlin. It began on April 16, 1945.
The main task was to surround the capital of Germany, bypass it from the North and the South, and then cleanse the Nazi troops and arrest the main war criminals. The offensive began at 3 a.m. when anti-aircraft searchlights illuminated enemy positions. This sanctified the path of the advancing troops, and at the same time blinded the enemy. This led to the panic and confusion of the Nazi troops. This ensured a breakthrough of the front line. Already on April 25, Soviet troops closed the encirclement outside Berlin in the city of Torgau, it is located on the river. Elba. Here, in this small town, a famous meeting took place with our allies, American troops. American, English and French troops advanced towards Berlin from the West.
On April 25, 1945, the destruction of the fascist group in Berlin began. By May 1, the main building of the Nazi Wehrmacht, the Reichstag, was captured. On April 30, the banner of Victory was erected above it. Until May 8, suppression of centers of resistance took place in different parts of Berlin. On the night of May 8–9, the Surrender of Nazi Germany was signed. And on May 9, our whole country celebrated Victory Day. Thus ended the Great Patriotic War.
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